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Introduction to Vibration Technology Articles
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PostPosted: 07 Nov 2019 04:18:03    Post subject:  Introduction to Vibration Technology Articles
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Introduction to Vibration Technology Articles | August 9
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, 2010
In simplest terms, vibration in motorized equipment is merely the back and forth movement or oscillation of machines and components, such as drive motors, driven devices (pumps, compressors and so on)...


In simplest terms, vibration in motorized equipment is merely the back and forth movement or oscillation of machines and components
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, such as drive motors, driven devices (pumps, compressors and so on) and the bearings, shafts, gears, belts and other elements that make up mechanical systems.


Vibration in industrial equipment can be both a sign and a source of trouble. Other times
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, vibration just ?goes with the territory? as a normal part of machine operation, and should not cause undue concern. But how can the plant maintenance professional tell the difference between acceptable, normal vibration, and the kind of vibration that requires immediate attention to service or replace troubled equipment?


With a basic understanding of vibration and its causes?and equipped with an appropriate?testing tool, such as the?Fluke 810 Vibration Tester?the maintenance professional can quickly and reliably determine the cause and severity of most machine vibration and receive recommendations for repair. It?s all done with the intelligence built into the tester, without the extensive monitoring and recording required for typical
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, long-term vibration monitoring programs.


Vibration is not always a problem. In some tasks, vibration is essential. Machines such as oscillating sanders and vibratory tumblers use vibration to remove materials and finish surfaces. Vibratory feeders use vibration to move materials. In construction, vibrators are used to help concrete settle into forms and compact fill materials. Vibratory rollers help compress asphalt used in highway paving.


In other cases vibration is inherent in machine design. For instance, some vibration is almost unavoidable in the operation of reciprocating pumps and compressors, internal combustion engines and gear drives. In a well engineered, well maintained machine
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, such vibration should be no cause for concern.


When vibration is a problem


Most industrial devices are engineered to operate smoothly and AVOID vibration, not produce it. In these machines, vibration can indicate problems or deterioration in the equipment. If the underlying causes are not corrected, the unwanted vibration itself can cause additional damage.


In this paper we are focused not on machines that are ?supposed? to vibrate as part of normal operation, but on those that should not vibrate: electric motors, rotary pumps and compressors
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, and fans and blowers. In these devices smoother operation is generally better, and a machine running with zero vibration is the ideal.


Most common causes of machine Vibration


Vibration can result from a number of conditions, acting alone or in combination. Keep in mind that vibration problems may be caused by auxiliary equipment, not just the primary equipment. These are some of the major causes of vibration.


Imbalance ? A ?heavy spot? in a rotating component will cause vibration when the unbalanced weight rotates around the machine?s axis, creating a centrifugal force. Imbalance could be caused by manufacturing defects (machining errors, casting flaws) or maintenance issues (deformed or dirty fan blades
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, missing balance weights). As machine speed increases the effects of imbalance become greater. Imbalance can severely reduce bearing life as well as cause undue machine vibration.


Misalignmentshaft runout ? Vibration can result when machine shafts are out of line. Angular misalignment occurs when the axes of (for example) a motor and pump are not parallel. When the axes are parallel but not exactly aligned, the condition is known as parallel misalignment. Misalignment may be caused during assembly or develop over time, due to thermal expansion, components shifting or improper reassembly after maintenance. The resulting vibration may be radial or axial (in line with the axis of the machine) or both.


Wear ? As components such as ball or roller bearings, drive belts or gears become worn, they may cause vibration. When a roller bearing race becomes pitted
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, for instance, the bearing rollers will cause a vibration each time they travel over the damaged area. A gear tooth that is heavily chipped or worn, or a drive belt that is breaking down, can also produce vibration.


Looseness ? Vibration that might otherwise go unnoticed may become obvious and destructive if the component that is vibrating has loose bearings or is loosely attached to its mounts. Such looseness may or may not be caused by the underlying vibration. Whatever its cause, looseness can allow any vibration present to cause damage, such as further bearing wear
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, wear and fatigue in equipment mounts and other components.


Effects of vibration


The effects of vibration can be severe. Unchecked machine vibration can accelerate rates of wear (i.e. reduce bearing life) and damage equipment. Vibrating machinery can create noise, cause safety problems and lead to degradation in plant working conditions. Vibration can cause machinery to consume excessive power and may damage product quality. In the worst cases, vibration can damage equipment so severely as to knock it out of service and halt plant production. Yet there is a positive aspect to machine vibration. Measured and analyzed correctly, vibration can be used in a preventive maintenance program as an indicator of machine condition, and help guide the plant maintenance professional to take remedial action before disaster strikes.


Characteristics of vibration


To understand how vibration manifests itself, consider The business si.
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PostPosted: 07 Nov 2019 04:18:03    Post subject: Adv






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